Linguistic Society of America (LSA) Style Sheet

    LEXEMES uses the style sheet of the Linguistic Society of America (LSA). This style sheet helps to establish and maintain consistency in formatting in the journal’s publications. Its purpose is to guide authors in the preparation of their manuscripts for submission to the journal. Manuscripts that depart from the style sheet will be returned to the author for corrections.


    If at all possible, please prepare the text of your manuscript in a basic word-processing program like Word and submit it as a .doc/.docx/.rtf file. Please submit a .pdf file of your manuscript along with the other files.

    1. Basic Formatting

    1. Set paper size to Letter, 8½×11.
    2. Set line spacing to 1.5 throughout the document.
    3. Use extra space between sections.
    4. Use 12 point font throughout the document (including title, headings, and notes), in a simple roman face except where indicated below (§3).
    5. Set margins of 1 inch (2.54 cm.) on all four sides of the paper.
    6. Left-align throughout the document (do not justify).
    7. Do not use line-end hyphens.
    8. Use a single space after all punctuation, not two spaces.
    9. Number all pages of the entire manuscript serially in the upper right corner.
    10. Do not use any other headers or footers.
    11. Special matter (tables, tableaux, figures, maps) should be given on separate pages at the end of the document, or in a separate file or files (see §2 below for details about the preparation of special matter).
    12. Use endnotes rather than footnotes, numbered with arabic numerals.
    13. The LSA urges contributors to Language to be sensitive to the social implications of language choice and to seek wording free of discriminatory overtones. In particular, contributors are asked to follow the LSA Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage, originally published in the December 1996 LSA Bulletin.
    14. Use the following order and numbering of pages.
      1. page 0: title and subtitle; authors’ names and affiliations as they will appear at the beginning of the article; email addresses for all authors (and mailing addresses, as desired, for first or all authors), to appear at the end of the article.
      2. page 1: title and subtitle only
      3. page 2: abstract of about 100 words (for articles and short reports) with asterisked acknowledgment footnote (footnote placeholder should come at end of abstract) and a list of 5–7 keywords (place after the abstract: Keywords: X, Y … )
      4. body of the work
      5. (appendix, if applicable)
      6. references, beginning on a new page
      7. notes, beginning on a new page
      8. all special matter (or in separate file or files; see below)

    2. Special Matter

    Special matter includes all tables, tableaux, figures, trees and other diagrams, and art work (not example sentences, rules, or formulas).

    1. Numbering of special matter
      1. Tables should be numbered separately from other examples: Table 1, Table 2, etc.
      2. Figures (including charts, graphs, pictures, trees) should be numbered separately from other examples and tables: Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.
      3. OT tableaux and some syntactic trees can be numbered as regular examples within the text, but should still follow the conventions outlined below.
    2. Key each piece of special matter to its proper place in the body of the manuscript with a notation of the following sort on a separate line in the manuscript.



    For a tableau or other special matter that is numbered as a regular example, include the example number, followed by the notation:

    (15) <INSERT Tableau 15 HERE>

    or with a legend:

    (15) Tableau illustrating ranked bigram constraints

    <INSERT Tableau 15 HERE>

    1. File formats: Tables, OT tableaux, and other text-based special matter (including some figures) should be set in a word-processing program, and submitted in a .doc file or the equivalent.

    Each table, tableau, or other text-based special matter should appear on a separate page at the end of the main text file, or on a separate page in a separate file of special matter. Centered below each table or figure, put its number, followed by a brief legend.

    Table 1. Basic ordering typology for adjacent affixes.

    A tableau or other special matter that is numbered as a regular example does not need a legend, but should be keyed to its place in the text.

    <Tableau for example 15>

    1. Figures that are not text-based should be sent as individual files (containing just the figure itself, not including the figure number and legend); these files can be sent in various formats, such .pdf, .eps, .jpg, .bmp, .xls, .doc, depending on how the figure was originally created and what would give the best product. Figures should be as high resolution as possible, and should be in black and white. Name figure files according to their number (Figure1, Figure2b, Figure 2b, etc.). The figures in these files should be camera-ready.

    In addition to the separate figure files, figure numbers and legends should appear on a separate page at the end of the main text file, or in a separate file of special matter; images of the figures can be included in that file as well, for reference.

    Figure 2. Average pre-ka placement for 172 roots.

    The accompanying .pdf file of the whole document that is sent should also include all of the figures and tables with their legends. Please note, however, that the figures cannot be set from this file or from an image inserted into a .doc file, and thus it is important to send a separate file for each individual figure, as indicated above.

    3. Typefaces and Special Fonts

    1. Use italics for all cited linguistic forms and examples in the text. Do not use italics for emphasis, or to mark common loanwords or technical terms: ad hoc, façon de parler, ursprachlich, binyan, etc.
    2. Use small capitals to mark a technical term at its first use or definition, or to give emphasis to a word or phrase in the text.
    3. Please do not capitalize names of laws, theories, or hypotheses; the first appearance may be given in small capitals to indicate the use as a technical term.
    4. Use boldface for certain forms in Oscan and Umbrian, and to distinguish Gaulish and other forms originally written in the Greek alphabet.
    5. Boldface can also be used to draw the reader's attention to particular aspects of a linguistic example, whether given within the text or as a numbered example.
    6. If special fonts are required, as much as possible use unicode-based fonts. For phonetic fonts, we prefer Doulos SIL or Doulos SIL Compact (available from If you use any other fonts, please send the fonts along with your other files.
    7. If you have any problems getting a particular symbol to show up correctly in the manuscript you send us, please include a note with the file clearly explaining what the symbol should look like, with a picture for reference. Please do not just try to approximate the correct symbol by adjusting spacing, font size, etc., since those formatting details will be lost in the regular typesetting process.

    4. Punctuation

    1. Use single quotation marks, except for quotes within quotes. The second member of a pair of quotation marks should precede any other adjacent mark of punctuation, unless the other mark is a necessary part of the quoted matter: The word means ‘cart’, not ‘horse’. He asked, ‘What can we hypothesize about this example?’.
    2. Do not enclose any cited linguistic examples in quotation marks. See §6.
    3. Indent long quotations (more than about forty words) without quotation marks.
    4. Do not hyphenate words containing prefixes unless a misreading will result (e.g.nonlinguistic, postvocalic, etc.); hyphenate if the stem begins with a capital letter: non-Dravidian, Proto-Athabaskan.
    5. Indicate ellipsis by three periods, close set, with a blank space before and after, like … this.
    6. Use a comma before the last member of a series of three or more coordinate elements: A, B, and C; X, Y, or Z (the ‘Oxford comma’). Do not use a comma after the expressions e.g. and i.e.
    7. Use a period (full stop) before numbered examples, tables, or figures, not a colon.

    5. Notes

    1. Number all notes to the body of the text serially throughout the document.
    2. The note reference number in the body of the text is a raised arabic numeral, not enclosed in parentheses. Place note numbers at the ends of sentences wherever possible, or after a comma, semicolon, or other punctuation mark that indicates a pause or natural break; the note reference number should be placed after the punctuation mark. Do not link more than one note to a single place in the text.
    3. All notes should be placed at the end of the text (following the references) as endnotes, 1.5 spaced, 12 point font, like the rest of the text (see §1).
    4. Each note should be a separate paragraph beginning with its reference number, raised above the line and not followed by any punctuation mark.
    5. Place the acknowledgment footnote at the end of the abstract, keyed with an asterisk.
    6. Number footnotes to special matter (numbered as a, b, c) separately for each piece of special matter and place them as footnotes on the same page as the special matter.

    6. Cited Forms

    1. Do not italicize numbered examples. Italicize words or other linguistic forms only when cited within the text.
    2. Enclose transcriptions either within (phonetic) square brackets or within (phonemic) slashes: the suffix [q], the word /rek/. Do not italicize bracketed transcriptions.
    3. Use angle brackets for specific reference to graphemes: the letter <q>.
    4. Transliterate or transcribe all forms in any language not normally written with the Latin alphabet, including Greek, unless there is a compelling reason for using the original orthography. Use IPA symbols unless there is another standard system for the language.
    5. After the first occurrence of non-English forms, provide a gloss in single quotation marks: Latin ovis ‘sheep’ is a noun. No comma precedes the gloss and no comma follows, unless necessary for other reasons: Latin ovis ‘sheep’, canis ‘dog’, andequus ‘horse’ are nouns. See §8 for other instructions on glosses.

    7. Numbered Examples, Rules, and Formulas

    1. Place each numbered item on a separate line with the number in parentheses; indent after the number; use lowercase letters to group sets of related items.



    Down the hill rolled the baby carriage.


    Out of the house strolled my mother's best friend.

    1. In the text, refer to numbered items as 2, 2a, 2a,b, 2a-c (with no parentheses).
    2. Examples in notes should be numbered as (i), (ii), (iii), etc., and should be referred to as such in the text.

    8. Glosses and Translations of Examples

    Examples not in English must be translated or glossed as appropriate. Sometimes, both a translation and a word-for-word or morpheme-by-morpheme gloss are appropriate.

    1. Place the translation or gloss of an example sentence or phrase on a new line below the example, indented.


    La nouvelle constitution approuvéé, le président renforça ses pouvoirs.

    ‘The new constitution approved, the president consolidated his power.’

    1. Align word-for-word or morpheme-by-morpheme glosses of example phrases or sentences with the beginning of each original word; use tabs to make alignments rather than multiple spaces.
















    1. Observe the following conventions in morpheme-by-morpheme glosses:
      1. Place a hyphen between morphs within words in the original, where relevant, and a corresponding hyphen in the gloss; do not use any hyphens in the gloss that do not have corresponding hyphens in the original.
      2. If one morph in the original corresponds to two or more elements in the gloss (cumulative exponence), separate the latter by a period, except for persons; there is no period at the end of a word.




    ‘the sister’s pictures’

    1. Gloss lexical roots in lowercase roman type.
      Gloss persons as 1, 2, 3, and 4.
      Gloss all other grammatical categories in small capitals.
    2. Abbreviate glosses for grammatical categories. List the abbreviations in a note.

    9. Abbreviations

    1. Abbreviations ending in a small letter have a following period; abbreviations ending in a capital do not.
    2. Abbreviations such as e.g., i.e., etc., cf., and others should only be used within parentheses; elsewhere, spell out ‘for example, ... ’, ‘that is, ... ’, and so forth.
    3. Names of languages used as adjectives are often abbreviated prenominally; the editors follow the practice of Merriam-Webster dictionaries for these abbreviations.
    4. Use prime notation (e.g. S', V'') rather than bar notation.

    10. Section Headings

    1. Use the same roman typesize as the body of the text for all headings.
    2. The number and the following period should be in boldface; the heading text should be in small capitals.
    3. Capitalize only the first word of the heading.
    4. Do not use more than two levels of headings: for example, 1 or 2.3 are fine, but not 3.2.4. If a further division of the section is necessary, simply use small capsfor the subsection heading, with no number.

    Methods. Experiment 1 took place in a sound-attentuated lab …

    1. Place section headings on a line with the section number and the first line of the section.

    1. Introduction. The recent renaissance of …

    11. Citations in the Text

    Within the text, give only a brief citation in parentheses consisting of the author's surname, the year of publication, and page number(s) where relevant: (Rice 1989, Yip 1991:75–76).

    1. If the citation is of the work, place either everything within parentheses: (e.g. Joseph & Janda 2004:121), or nothing in parentheses: More discussion of issues related to historical reconstruction can be found in Joseph & Janda 2004:121. In this case, use an ampersand between two authors' names, and if there are more than two authors, use the surname of the first author, followed by et al.: (see Yip et al. 1995).
    2. If, by contrast, the citation is of the author, and the author's name is part of the text, then use this form: Rice (1989:167) comments that …, Joseph and Janda (2004:121) note that …, Yip and colleagues (1995:34) illustrate this … . Please note the following specifications: only the date (and page numbers) are in parentheses; use 'and' rather than ampersand between two author names; use 'and colleagues' or the like rather than 'et al.' for more than two authors.
    3. Do not use notes for citations only, other than for website URLs when necessary.

    12. References

    At the end of the manuscript, provide a full bibliography, 1.5 spaced, beginning on a separate page with the heading REFERENCES.

    1. Arrange the entries alphabetically by surnames of authors, with each entry as a separate hanging indented paragraph. Surnames with a separately written prefix (e.g. von, de, van der, etc.) should be alphabetized by the prefix.

    van der Sandt, Rob A. 1992. Presupposition projection as anaphora resolution. Journal of Semantics 9.333–77.

    Wilson, Deirdre. 1975. Presuppositions and non-truth-conditional semantics. London: Academic Press.

    1. List multiple works by the same author in ascending chronological order. No distinction should be made between works for which the author was the editor vs. the author.

    Hymes, Dell H. 1974a. Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Hymes, Dell H. (ed.) 1974b. Studies in the history of linguistics: Traditions and paradigms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Hymes, Dell H. 1980. Language in education: Ethnolinguistic essays. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

    1. Use suffixed letters a, b, c, etc. to distinguish more than one item published by a single author in the same year.
    2. Do not replace given names with initials unless the person always uses initials: Dixon, R. M. W., but Lehiste, Ilse.
    3. Use a middle name or initial only if the author normally does so: Heath, Shirley Brice; Oehrle, Richard T.
    4. Author names should be given in small capitals (if you cannot easily set small capitals, please leave them in regular font—do not set them as all capitals and/or in a smaller font size).
    5. Please give each reference a date; we do not list works with ‘to appear’, ‘in progress’, ‘in press’, etc. in lieu of a date. If the reference has been accepted for publication, list it with the estimated date of publication, and include ‘to appear’ at the end of the entry. If the reference has not yet been accepted for publication, please give it the date corresponding to the version you referenced, and list it as a manuscript, with the author’s place and affiliation (see the Miner 1990 entry below).

    Sprouse, Jon; Matt Wagers; and Colin Phillips. 2011. A test of the relation between working memory capacity and syntactic island effects. Language, to appear.

    1. If more than two articles are cited from the same book, list the book as a separate entry under the editor's name, with cross-references to the book in the entries for each article; similarly, if a book is cited independently within the text and references, individual articles from that book should cross-reference the book.

    Butt, Miriam, and Wilhelm Geuder (eds.) 1998. The projection of arguments: Lexical and compositional factors. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

    Croft, William. 1998. Event structure in argument linking. In Butt & Geuder, 21–63.

    1. Book and journal names should be given in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle of an article or book, as well as any other words required to be capitalized in the language’s orthography.
    2. Each entry should contain the following elements in the order and punctuation given: (first) author’s surname, given name(s) or initial(s); given name and surname of other authors. Year of publication. Full title and subtitle of the work. For a journal article: Full name of the journal and volume number (roman type).inclusive page numbers for the entire article. For an article in a book: title of the book, ed. by [full name(s) of editor(s)], inclusive page numbers. For books and monographs, the edition, volume or part number (if applicable); series title (if any) in parentheses. Place of publication: Publisher.
    3. Use en-dashes between page numbers; include appropriate page numbers as follows: 12–17, 143–46, 198–205, 1147–55, 1195–203, etc.
    4. If a reference is published online—for example, an unpublished manuscript hosted on the author’s website, or an open-access online publication, such as a journal or conference proceedings—please include a link to the article, as in the examples below. Do not include links for articles published in hard-copy books or journals, unless the electronic version is open-access and hosted by the owner of the copyright.

    Donohue, Mark. 2009. Geography is more robust than linguistics. Science e-letter, 13 August 2009. Online:

    Saltzman, Elliot; Hosung Nam; Jelena Krivokapic; and Louis Goldstein. 2008. A task- dynamic toolkit for modeling the effects of prosodic structure on articulation. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Speech Prosody (Speech Prosody 2008), Campinas, 175–84. Online:

    Sundell, Timothy R. 2009. Metalinguistic disagreement. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, MS. Online:

    1. Additional examples are given below.

    Dorian, Nancy C. (ed.) 1989. Investigating obsolescence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Gropen, Jess; Steven Pinker; Michelle Hollander; Richard Goldberg;and Ronald Wilson. 1989. The learnability and acquisition of the dative alternation in English. Language 65.203–57.

    Hale, Kenneth, and Josie White Eagle. 1980. A preliminary metrical account of Winnebago accent. International Journal of American Linguistics 46.117–32.

    Miner, Kenneth. 1990. Winnebago accent: The rest of the data. Lawrence: University of Kansas, MS.

    Perlmutter, David M. 1978. Impersonal passives and the unaccusative hypothesis. Berkeley Linguistics Society 4.157–89.

    Poser, William. 1984. The phonetics and phonology of tone and intonation in Japanese. Cambridge, MA: MIT dissertation.

    Prince, Ellen. 1991. Relative clauses, resumptive pronouns, and kind-sentences. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Chicago.

    Rice, Keren. 1989. A grammar of Slave. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    Singler, John Victor. 1992. Review of Melanesian English and the Oceanic substrate, by Roger M. Keesing. Language 68.176–82.

    Stockwell, Robert P. 1993. Obituary of Dwight L. Bolinger. Language69.99–112.

    Tiersma, Peter M. 1993. Linguistic issues in the law. Language 69.113–37.

    Yip, Moira. 1991. Coronals, consonant clusters, and the coda condition.The special status of coronals: Internal and external evidence, ed. by Carole Paradis and Jean-Francois Prunet, 61–78. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.




    As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

    1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
    2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
    3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
    4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
    5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
    6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.


    By submitting an article to LEXEMES, author certifies that no portions of the article are copyrighted or currently under review with any other journal, edited collection, book, or conference proceedings. If your submitted article does not meet this requirement, publication details must be provided to the editors upon submission of the work. Author retains his/her copyright after granting the journal the right of first publication. Author cannot demand that LEXEMESwithdraws, deletes, or otherwise makes unavailable the articles after publication. However, the journal editors reserve the right to delete, withdraw or make unavailable published materials for whatever reason.



    The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.



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